Understanding the mechanisms that determine the evolution and climate variability of the planet is fundamental particularly in the Anthropocene era when human activities have become, on the whole, the main mechanism of climate and environment transformation, also in order to define adaptation and mitigation measures. This strategic area investigates climate dynamics, also in the past with paleoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from data and models, the global changes taking place and their impacts. Studies span scales from global to regional, with particular emphasis on climate change hotspots such as the Mediterranean basin and polar regions and mountain environments

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